HISTORY OF LA VILLAUMAIRE
and the families who lived there
50 ap. JC
La Villa Majoris
de La Galmandière
de La Trémoille
Le Duc de Mortemart
Minière du Nord
Le Prince de Sant'Eusébio
From Genesis to the 15th century:
Very early on, the site, a game forest nestled between three rivers (Indre, Loire and Vienne), attracted people. It has been present there since the Paleolithic, as evidenced by the discovery of a lithic workshop located on the La Motte-Beauregard plateau, to the north-east of the present village.
Later it was the Turones, a proud Gallic tribe ( "Turo" can be translated as "strong" or "bold"), who made it their territory. The village nestled in the vast and dark forest which then covered the region, bore the toponym: "Uxisama" meaning "the very high" (probably the epithet of a local deity).
Between 50 and 52 BC. JC, the legions of Rome invest the country and "Uxisama" was Latinized in "Oxima" , or "Oximensis villae" (the villas of Oxima). Indeed, with the "Pax Romana" paths are traced around which hatch the "villae" . The section of the "Via Vetuta" which linked Huismes to Chinon is no exception to this trend and the "villae" appear in Huismes: Auzon (Avitiacum), Benais (Benniacum), l'Etui (in the center of the village) the Laré (Larriacum), Rassay (Recciacum), Mouzilly (Musilliacum), Cuzé (Cusiacum)… The “Villa Majoris” (or the large estate), which would later become La Villaumaire, was probably one of them.
Between the 5th and the 6th century, the decomposition of the Roman Empire, allows the advent of new states, and the region becomes a "march" of the Frankish Kingdom under King Clovis I intended for the defense of the territory against the Kingdom of Visigoths which stretches from Spain to the banks of the Loire via Aquitaine. At that time, the "Villa Majoris" would have been the residence of the governors of the district of Véron on behalf of the Merovingian kings.
Much later, the decline of the Merovingians left a free hand to the appetite of religious institutions: the archbishops of Tours became lords of Chinon and went on to pursue a policy of expansion. Moreover, at the beginning of the 10th century, the domain of Huismes was donated by King Charles the Simple to the Chapter of the Church of Tours, a donation confirmed in 1157 by King Louis VII. In 1215, the Archbishop of Tours, Jean de La Faye, entrusted the justice of the seigneury of Huismes to an ecclesiastical magistrate bearing the title of "Mayor". The use of the “Villa Majoris” was assigned to this charge, which was for a time owned by the Church of Tours.
Of the Gallo-Roman villa, which has become a castrum, as of the latter, today we do not know both the appearance and the consistency. Neither do we know who the lords were between the 13th and 15th centuries, the period from which the estate appeared in the hands of the Péquineau.
Gustave de Cougny, Chinon and its surroundings, 1898,
C. Chevalier, Picturesque walks in Touraine, 1869
JX Carré de Busserolle, Geographical, historical and biographical dictionary of Indre et Loire, 1883.
From the 15th to the 17th century
The Péquineau (also spelled "Pecquineau" or "Péguineau") belong to a family of ancient nobility who held various positions of Chancellery, notably under François 1er. In 1448, Martin Péquineau, Master of the Royal Artillery of Charles VII whose Court is based in Chinon, is the first of this family to be known as "Lord of La Villaumaire". Throughout the archives, we find mention of his successors in this regard. In 1527: his grandson Martin, 2nd of the name, Master of the Chamber with the money of Anne of Brittany.
In 1530, the latter's widow: Renée de Bec de Lièvre. Then his son: Nicolas, followed -in 1571- by his widow: Catherine Mesnager, then by their own son: François de Péquineau, Gentil-
man of the King's chamber, who had married Marie d'Argouges and, finally: François II who succeeded his father between 1620 and 1625 and who was the last of this house to own this fief. He still appears as Lord of the Villaumaire, as godfather on a baptismal certificate, April 9, 1648. But, some time later and without knowing the precise date, the estate passes to the Aubery family , probably as a result of an assignment. In the end, La Villaumaire will have remained, at least, two centuries, with the Péquineau. And it is to them that we owe the building of most of the “new castle” in the 15th century. The Péquineau allied themselves with the families of the local nobility, in particular on several occasions, with the Nau, lords of the Hermitage, owned various goods on the commune; such as the manor of Beaulieu or the mill of Fosse-au-Brun and although they were rooted in other skies (one branch was Mayor of Tours and owned, in particular, the castle of Charentais), the branch of Huismes, it , will eventually die out in the 19th century.
t was also at the time of the Péquineau that Rabelais mentioned La Villaumaire in his work. Thus, he recounts how Grandgousier, father of Gargantua, allied himself in particular with the lord of La Villaumaire to defeat Picrochole at La Roche Clermault. It also locates, near La Villaumaire, the home of Raminagrobis, poet and diviner, father of the beautiful Bazoche, to whom Panurge asked to decipher the mysterious message of Panzoult's sibyl.
F. Rabelais, "Gargantua", Chapter 47: "How Grandgousier sent for his legions"
F. Rabelais, "Le Tiers Livre", Chapter XXI: "How Panurge takes advice from an old French poet named Raminagrobis"
From the 17th to the 19th century:
In the middle of the 17th century. the castle of La Villaumaire therefore becomes the property of Maurice d'Aubéry. He is the ninth of ten children of Benjamin d'Aubéry. Benjamin comes from a Huguenot family originally from Maine and Anjou. He himself was one of the traveling companions of the King of Navarre at the Battle of Coutras in 1588. He was also secretary of Duplessis-Mornay: the "Pope of the Huguenots", then the secretary and steward of 'Henri de La Tour, Viscount of Turenne and Duke of Bouillon, from 1592 to 1606, is to say the attachment of this family to the Reformed cause. This is why, even if he is a French “high official” (he will be State Councilor to Louis XIII), once he becomes French Ambassador to Holland, he will therefore be in this country, like a “fish in water". It is therefore quite natural that his son Maurice, who will be
discussed here was born in the Netherlands in September 1618. He was held on the baptismal font by Maurice de Nassau, Prince of Orange, his godfather, who gave him his first name. Raised in Holland, he will undertake a military career in the troops of the princes of Orange.
Does he often come to France and, in doing so, does he frequently reside in Huismes, whether in his castles of La Villaumaire or La Motte au Loup? No one knows it today. In any case, in 1666, he paid homage to his strongholds of Négrons, Boulard located in Neman, parish of Avoine, and surrounding areas to Louis de Valentinay, Lord of Ussé.
But, on August 11, 1674, during the battle of Seneffe, he was at the head of his regiment, in his capacity as colonel in the troops of William of Orange, who had an Austro-Hispano-Dutch army of 60,000 men. Opposite, the French: 45,000 men under the orders of the Prince of Condé. After five weeks of procrastination during which the belligerents observe each other, Guillaume d'Orange engages in hostilities: he takes the road to Paris, forcing the French into combat. After more than 10 hours of carnage, the two armies withdrew, leaving on the battlefield around 10,000 dead or wounded on the French side and 15,000 on the Dutch side. Maurice d'Aubéry du Maurier, Lord of La Villaumaire is among the dead. He was 56 years old.
Disappeared without posterity, the Château de La Villaumaire should naturally return to its closest relative: its nephew Louis, lord of Maurier and La Fontaine-Danger. Unfortunately, his property was confiscated by order of King Louis XIV, the deceased having taken up arms against France (5). Louis is therefore forced to buy the domain. On the other hand, the Manoir de la Motte au Loup seems to have been abandoned to its fate. At the start of the 19th century, only a few vestiges of the main building remained, such as its outbuildings and its Fuye ... and there is no trace of it today.
Louis had married on March 20, 1676, Françoise de Nettancourt Vaubécourt. But the union was short-lived, the spouses both deceased, less than ten years after their marriage. They leave three young children: Anne Jacques Louis, Marie Anne and Charlotte Françoise. It is their maternal grandmother: Anne de La Marche de Contre, widow of Louis de Nettancourt, who becomes their tutor. During this whole period, the family did not come to La Villaumaire which was leased out. Thus, the local archives let us know the successive farmers general: Michel Pelport, Jacques Chauvelin, Yves Baranger, Louis Dupoux, Jean Cheron, Louis Delacroix… some of whom still have descendants in the town.
At the very beginning of the 18th century. it is the only son of the deceased, Anne Jacques Louis d'Aubéry, captain in the Nettancourt regiment, who is the owner of La Villaumaire. It seems that this one fixed his main residence in his castle of Maurier in the Sarthe, La Villaumaire being then, no doubt, only a hunting and holiday residence. It is only with his youngest son that the family will reside year round at La Villaumaire. Indeed, Anne Jacques Louis had married on November 24, 1710 Marguerite Françoise de Vaillant d'Avignon, who gave him two sons: Jean Louis François born October 25, 1712 and Henry François born December 8, 1716.
After the death of Anne Jacques Louis, his widow Marguerite, bought, on April 12, 1749, the seigneury of Beugny from her cousin Marie-Anne-Élisabeth de Beauvau (herself widow of Louis-Paul de Rochechouart, prince of Tonnay- Charente, Duke of Mortemart). The acquisition of the Château de Beugny, located in Saint Benoît la Forêt, barely a league from Huismes, is intended to establish its eldest, Jean-Louis-François. At the same time, La Villaumaire, goes to the younger Henry François.
The latter after a military career (he will end up captain in the Lusignan regiment), will retire to the Villaumaire dividing his life between his castle and that of his brother. Knight of Malta (the locals nicknamed him "the Knight of La Villaumaire" ), he will have no descendants and will die among his family at the Château de Beugny, at the age of 74 years. He was buried in the Church of Saint Benoit la Forêt on May 20, 1790.
His elder brother Jean-Louis-François having predeceased him, La Villaumaire returns to his nephew: Charles-Marie-Jean-Baptiste marquis d'Aubéry, the eldest of a family of six children. But, the family will be dispersed by the revolutionary turmoil. As for him, he emigrated and died prematurely in Germany. The Villaumaire will be confiscated (again !!!) by the brand new republic as a “national asset” …
It should in fact be known that the French Revolution had seriously aggravated the financial crisis by which it was born. On May 5, 1789, at the opening of the States General, Jacques Necker therefore proposed the issue of a “national paper” intended for the settlement of the public debt. But, the risk of bankruptcy is so great that it is urgently necessary to find money; the deputy Talleyrand (who was bishop!) proposes to confiscate the goods of the clergy (and not to nationalize them because no compensation has been paid). Thus on November 2, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly decided that all the goods of the clergy would be "made available to the Nation" . Having become “national property” , they are auctioned off to fill the state coffers. The concept of "national property" is then extended to the property of emigrants and suspects, which are confiscated from March 30, 1792, then sold after the decree of July 27, 1792.
Thus, during the “Terror”, La Villaumaire was put up for public sale by the administration of the District of Chinon. On May 12, 1794, the mother (Aimée de Créquy) and sister (Marie Anne Louise d'Aubéry) of the “émigré” , who had remained in France, were therefore forced to buy their own home. But, without being able to enjoy it. The Municipal Archives of Chinon, Series 1, “police of emigrants” report that the mother and the daughter live in hiding in Chinon and forced to respond to almost daily summons as parents of emigrants.
At the end of the revolution, in the last days which saw the end of the 18th century, they were finally able to recover their home. After the death of her mother, Marie Anne Louise d'Aubéry, whose family - as we have seen - had owned the castle for nearly two centuries, ended up selling it on October 1, 1811, to Armand Paul Gault de la Galmandière.
E. Faucillon, "Historical Notes on the Domaine de La Villaumaire", Bulletin des Amis du Vieux Chinon, T.III, N ° 1, p. 47 to 56, 1928
The Gault de La Galmandière family is originally from Armaillé on the border of Maine and Brittany, where it appears to be long-term and essentially established in Theil (stronghold of Beauchesne) and Chateaubourg (stronghold of La Galmandière). She belongs to a long line of lawyers and magistrates whose parentage can be traced back to 1450. Unsuccessful of her request for nobiliary recognition in 1699, then confirmed in her nobility by decree of the Parliament of Brittany on 11.04.1742, This is with Pierre Gault de La Galmandière (1723-1807), that the family sets foot in Touraine and settles in Tours.
His son Armand-Paul, future purchaser of La Villaumaire, was born on May 8, 1763 in the Parish of Saint-Etienne in Rennes. Very early on, he was destined for the Church. On September 18, 1780,
aged 17, he is received “tonsured clerk” , then Canon at the Chapter of Dol in Brittany. Six years later, he was ordained a priest. On September 18, 1790, he received in addition to the canonicate the benefit of a Prebendal House, that is to say that in addition to the residence of a dignitary of the church, he obtained the privilege of being able to levy the tax. ecclesiastical or prebend.
But, in November 1791, as in May 1792, particularly repressive laws aimed at the clergy were promulgated. They don't bode well. In June 1792 arrests of priests on simple denunciation (as provided for by law) increased. The first massacres began: on July 14, a priest was killed in Limoges, nine in the Var; July 15, two in Bordeaux… August 9, 1792, Armand who resides in Baguer-Pican, 5 km from Dol, declares to the municipality that he is retiring to his family in Tours. The next day, the monarchy is thrown down and the "Terror" begins. She disperses the Chapter of Dol. Most of the Canons will be exiled, massacred or deported. Armand Paul goes underground. As such, he is considered an “émigré” . From now on, if we get our hands on him, he incurs the guillotine. Republicans are unleashed; everywhere the churches are closed or transformed into temples of Reason, of Brutus (!), of Marat (!)…
Books and works of art are burned, sacred vessels are broken, and religious ornaments are vandalized. Jews too are molested. They are closing their synagogues. We burn their sacred books. Sunday is abolished and prohibited. A law even provides that those who observe Sunday will be listed on the "List of lazy and suspect citizens" , and threatened with imprisonment, or other, according to the wishes of the Supervisory Committees.
When they are not condemned to death and executed, the priests are imprisoned, or deported to the prisons of New Caledonia and French Guyana. The first deportations, which took place in September 1792, often took place in appalling conditions. The deportees are deprived of both food and sleep, or even bedding. Thus, of the 120 deported to Cayenne, 119 died during the trip.
Once the "Terror" has passed, the noose is loosened. The churches reopened in May 1795. The coup d'état of 18 Fructidor Year V (4 September 1797) accentuated this movement, the apex of which was the Concordat signed with the Holy See in Paris on July 15, 1801. A few months later, on December 10, 1801, a letter from the sub-prefect informed the town hall of Dol that a ministerial decree struck Armand-Paul from the list of emigrants. It can reappear in broad daylight. These nine years have changed. He is 38 years old and is no longer this young idealist steeped in faith. He left the priesthood and under the Directory, he will serve as “Commissioner of Wars” . That is to say that its mission will be, in particular, to administer, within the armies, the distribution of food, fodder, heating, clothing and equipment of the troops. The new regime which marks a break with the disorders of the revolution also seduced his younger brother, Benjamin Gault GAULT de la GALMANDIÈRE. This one will follow a similar course: officer in the imperial army, he will end up general, baron of the Empire and will die at the battle of Danzig (his heart is buried in the church of Huismes)
But, back to Armand-Paul. Now on one level in the century, he married -in 1802 and in Paris- Louise Henriette Adélaïde Castel (1778-1869) who followed him in his military assignments. Thus, his only daughter: Zoé Prudence Gault de La Galmandière was born on February 26, 1803 in Mainz.
In 1811, he was 48 years old and joined civilian life: he was a Tobacco Storekeeper. In other words, he is an official of the Empire responsible for the custody and distribution of tobacco of which the State has a monopoly. A sort of wholesalers vis-à-vis retailers. Functions which he combines with those, neighboring, of Central Receiver of the indirect contributions of the district of Chinon. It was at this time that he acquired the Château de La Villaumaire. For 15 years (from 1816 to 1831), he will be Mayor of the Municipality. He died on October 28, 1838 in Paris, at the age of 75.
Annals of Brittany and the countries of the West Year 1917 32-2 pp. 22
Delarue, District of Dol, Municipality of Dol, 1905.
Aristocracy and armorial of Brittany, Pol Potier de Courcy, 1890
La Villaumaire was part of the dowry of her only daughter Zoé Gault de La Galmandière when she married Pierre Louis Levesque des Varannes. He was born in Saumur on March 11, 1791, into a bourgeois family from Maine. Placed at the Lycée de Rennes, he left this establishment at the age of fourteen to enter the military navy. Received the rank of midshipman second class in 1806, he successively reached those of midshipman first class, and ensign. In these various positions, he took part in several campaigns. The collapse of the Empire in 1815, in which the army played a preponderant role, both in jobs and in honors, came to close the brilliant future reserved for a large number of officers, including the ensign. of Varannes vessel. Moreover, proclaiming as it does - that under the Restoration - its nostalgia for the defunct Empire, hardly serves its interests. Therefore, it will remain completely forgotten in his rank until 1820, the year during which - after fifteen years of
service - he decided to leave the army.
Why does he come to settle his residence in Chinon? Did he know the Gault family from La Galmandière? Still, a few months later, he married in Chinon, January 15, 1821, Zoé, the daughter of Armand Paul, owner of the Château de La Villaumaire. The husband is 30 years old, the young bride 18 years old. According to H. de Lestrees, Pierre Louis des Varannes will then end the happy days of a landowner. Zoe gave him three children: Ernest born in 1822, Arthur born in 1823 and finally -1824- a daughter: Louise Claire.
In 1830, thanks to the change of regime, his fellow citizens and friends urged him to present his candidacy for the sub-prefecture of Chinon. What he did successfully: he became Sub-prefect of the said town in August 1830. Two years later he received the Legion of Honor and in February 1833 he was called to the sub-prefecture of Bayonne. His action, both administrative and political, in particular between France and Spain, earned him the receipt from the hands of M. Ferrer, former president of the Cortes, of the cross of Charles III awarded to him by Queen Christine of Spain.
It seems that Pierre Louis des Varannes was endowed with a strong character; because when the Ministry of the Interior decides to appoint a commissioner-general for the border of the Pyrenees - appointment which would have made him pass from the rank of first magistrate of this district to a subordinate position - he decides to leave Bayonne, and a few months later administration.
He thought his departure was final. But, it was without counting on the Duke Decazes who came to offer him the sub-prefecture of Libourne, with, in addition, a delicacy, namely the title of "Master of Requests to the Council of State". He therefore resumed service and after two years spent at the Sub-prefecture of Libourne, he received orders from the minister which did not agree with what he believed to be fair and suitable in matters of election. Indeed, the minister intended that the sub-prefect exercised his influence for the benefit of one candidate rather than another. Pierre Louis offered to maintain complete neutrality. They wanted more; but he then wrote that between his consciousness and his position he would never sway for a single moment. We then took a middle ground, it was to transfer it to the sub-prefecture of Autun.
There again, after 2 years in this city, pressure exerted by the ministry, still in electoral matters, pushed him to announce his departure to his friends. He had the pleasure and the honor of seeing all the authorities of the city of Autun, from the municipal council to the national guard, come to ask him to remain at his post. He gave in, but a month later he was appointed to the sub-prefecture of Louhans, a post he did not accept.
We are, then, in 1839, he retires to the Villaumaire where, with his wife, they will undertake a vast campaign of works. The Napoleonic cadastre, the survey of which at La Villaumaire dates from 1837, gives a fairly precise idea of the state prior to this campaign, and consequently of the modifications made by the couple.
If the transformations are significant on the decorative level, they remain minor on the structural level, contrary to what some pamphlets suggest which peremptorily state a building "almost entirely rebuilt in the 19th century". The main project consists of the inversion of the facades. Thus, the main facade which was oriented "north" towards the castle of Ussé on which, under the old regime feudal dependent La Villaumaire, will become the rear of the building. Until then, the castle was accessed by a large avenue of chestnut trees planted in the 15th century. This alley (which still exists) led to two large entrance pavilions, connected by a gate. Before the gate, on the left, a set of outbuildings, poorly ordered, including a brickyard, cluttered the surroundings. Crossed the gate, we found ourselves in a vast Cour d'Honneur. The right part of the castle, in freestone, was the inhabited part. The left part, of more recent invoice, in coated rubble stone, included the "technical" parts (sheds, etc.).
The “south” facade, hitherto the rear of the castle, judged to be better exposed, will become the main facade, especially since the building, benefiting from a slope to the south, is thus much better highlighted. Suddenly, "behind" the castle, the two former entrance pavilions and the outbuildings will be razed. The main courtyard is filled in, the level of the ground raised and leveled. The clock tower is built. “In front of” the castle, a new entrance gate and a new access road is created. The new facade is reorganized by the addition of two square towers, the entrance staircase and remarkable stone embroidery in Gothic style. Some windows, doors and skylights are modified and receive - like the pillars of the new entrance gate - either the coat of arms or the motto (“N'oublye, ne doubte”) of the Varannes family.
The west wing receives some minor transformations. The interior of the castle, for its part, is brought up to date with a “troubadour” style decor.
However, Pierre Louis did not abandon public affairs: he was thus Mayor of the town of Huismes from 1843 to 1846. He died at the castle on February 6, 1868. Zoe survived him for ten years and joined him on the 4th. November 1878.
Marriage contract received by Me Bernier notary in chinon on January 14, 1821
General review, biographical, 6th year, vol 11, tome 2, p165 to 169
Annals of Brittany and the countries of the West Year 1917 32-2 pp. 22
Delarue, District of Dol, Municipality of Dol, 1905.
Aristocracy and armorial of Brittany, Pol Potier de Courcy, 1890
When Zoé died, it was her youngest: Louise Claire Levesque des Varannes who took over the Château. Born in Chinon in 1824, she is 54 years old. Why - contrary to the customs of the time - is it not the eldest son: Ernest Levesque des Varannes, former sub-prefect, Commander of the Order of St Sylvester who is taking over?
The answer is given to us by the holograph will of the deceased, dated March 2, 1876: Ernest, who then lives in Italy, led great train and is found to be in debt to his mother for more than half of the value. of the domain, which -concretely- excluded it from the takeover. Clearly, he received his share of the inheritance before the hour. As for the younger son: Arthur Levesque des Varannes, Knight of the Order of St Gregory the Great, he died a few months before his mother. And if Arthur does have a son Louis, who is then 24 years old. The latter does not seem to have been associated, directly or indirectly, with the
castle life. He has just started a “fiscal” career, as a tax collector in the Sarthe; (career which will end with his retirement on February 10, 1914 at the honorary rank of General Paymaster. He will die on December 20, 1938 in Dollus, Ile d'Oléron) ...
Louise Claire had married, in 1842, Théodore Eugène Bois, merchant in Châteaulin in Finistère. The latter, aged 29, comes from a large but well-off family (his father is the mayor of the town and his uncle, the president of the Tribunal).
La Villaumaire, which Louise-Claire inherited 39 years later, quickly became the center of gravity of the young couple. Thus, if their daughter: Irène was born in Paris (February 11, 1848), their son: Louis Daniel, was born - one year later - at the castle. And if in Châteaulin, Théodore walks on the political breaks of his father, (he was elected deputy of the majority of the 4th district of Finistère from 1852 until his death), it is in the hamlet of Mouzilly, adjoining La Villaumaire, let him take root. He will also be the Mayor of the town of Huismes from 1855 until his death ... A land which he will eventually take the name. Thus, in 1861, he was authorized by Decree of Napoleon III to add to his patronymic, the particle and the land name of “de Mouzilly”. He died prematurely, in 1864, at the age of 51.
The deceased leaves behind a young widow of 40 years. Louise Claire did not remarry until 15 years later, on March 27, 1879, with Joseph Paul Henri Bernard d'Honorat. Unfortunately, she died in her turn, as early as her first husband, on September 5, 1881, barely two years after her remarriage and barely 3 years after having inherited La Villaumaire. She was then 57 years old!
Théodore Eugène Bois de Mouzilly
the notarized copy dated November 9, 1878 is still kept in the archives of La Villaumaire)
The formalities relating to the inheritance of Zoe barely closed (they were done during 1880), it was necessary to plunge back into the pain and the annoyances of a new succession: that of Louis Claire Bois de Mouzilly who left three heirs:
- her second husband, Joseph Paul Henri Bernard d'Honorat,
- his daughter Irène Jeanne Bois de Mouzilly,
- his son Louis Daniel Bois de Mouzilly.
The inventory chicaneries between the widowed husband and the children of Zoe lead the case to the Court which orders the adjudication, which takes place on Sunday May 14, 1882 at Noon. And it is Irene and her husband who recover the family estate of La Villaumaire and its park, the rest, surrounding lands and farms, being acquired by the opportune who came to the quarry.
Who are the new owners? (if we dare say it, since the domain has been passed on by women for 71 years). Irene married on September 22, 1869 in Paris: Léon Auguste Brey. Having studied Fine Arts (1860-1863) and intending to become an architect, he was the assistant to his father, an architect himself, and to Émile Vaudremer for the expansion works of the Saint -Ferdinand des Ternes. He in turn settled into the profession in 1875. In 1882, it was therefore a young couple who took charge of the castle's destiny: Irene at 34 and Léon 41. They are divided between their Parisian address (71 av de Wagram) and La Villaumaire. Leon works, moreover, as much in Paris as in Indre et Loire and surroundings where he intervenes on various castles and chapels.
Leon Auguste Brey
We owe him, in particular, the construction around 1890 of a new chapel at the castle of La Poupardière, in Saint Martin La Place, near Saumur, work on the castle of Valmer (destroyed much later by a fire). In Paris, he built mansions (eg 19, rue de l'Université), apartment buildings, artists' studios (notably 23, rue Laugier), stores and boutiques. Interestingly, he exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français in Paris in 1885, a project for a hall and library for the Chateau de la Villaumaire, of which it is not known today whether it is indeed the library and of the hall which is nowadays attributed to a later owner.
And Louis Daniel? Because, as we have seen, Irene has a brother ... Although duly invited, he was not present at the auction ... And if he had been, he would have been hard pressed to to acquire it because, he burned the candle at both ends.
Little is known about him: he was 24 when he got married, 27 when his only son was born, 37 when he wrote his will and 48 when he died. He married, in 1873 in New York, an American: Kate Louise Parks who gave him a son, who was born in La Villaumaire on August 6, 1874. The newborn was given the first name of Joseph, to which we added - as a concession to American maternal manes - the middle name, from "Harker".
The young Joseph lost his father precociously in 1897. The same year, Kate, his mother, remarried with M Léon Urbain François de Poilloue de Saint Mars, Mayor of Encheville in the Loiret, who adopted him in the process. Joseph was then 23 years old and now responds to the exotic surname of: Joseph Harker Bois de Mouzilly de Poilloue de Saint Mars. Although he does not preside over the destinies of La Villaumaire, the reader will forgive us for this digression on his subject linked to the anecdote that follows.
Indeed, Joseph Harker who married an English (May Elizabeth Wesley Hall) moved to London (6 Spanish Place). Passionate about mechanics, he joined the ACU (Auto-Cycle Club), the first motorcycling club in the world, in 1903 when it was founded. For its part, in September 1904, the Motocycle-Club de France organized the International Cup in Dourdan, south-west of Paris. Austria, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and of course France, which wins the race, are participating. On the occasion of this event, which arouses dissension among the organizers, it becomes obvious that a sports authority is necessary to settle the disputes resulting from these international races. In December, the motorcycle clubs of these 5 countries meet in Paris and create the “International Federation of Motorcycle Clubs”.
The beginnings of the new federation are difficult, the English believe they were cheated during the first International Trophy (1904) which, according to them should have taken place on British soil given the precedence and weight of their club within the new organization. They nevertheless participate in the second trophy which takes place in 1905 - again - in France, but they intend to influence the decisions. Joseph, who has the advantage of being from the English club, while being French, is the ideal “English” candidate for the presidential election which takes place in December of the same year and he is, moreover, elected there. However, the 1906 trophy takes place in Patzau, Bohemia, with the Austrian club playing at home. The execration of the English is then at its height.
1912: the delegates present at the Olympia in London on November 28, 1912 - during the "restart" of the FICM. First row in the center: Sir Arthur Stanley, president of the FICM (with the cane), to his right Joseph Harker Bois de Mouzilly-Saint Mars.
At the instigation of Joseph, who wants to avoid the implosion of the very young federation, talks take place to organize the following Trophy on the autonomous Isle of Man, which is not subject to the British highway code is to even to receive the competition. In the end, the talks stalled and the delegates of the participating countries considered dissolving the FICM, which remained dormant for the next five years. Joseph with the support of a few others then fights to bring the different parties together and reactivate the Federation. And his efforts finally paid off, in 1912, the FICM came back to life. Joseph is named “Patron” (Honorary President) in recognition of the services rendered and the new executive president is a British MP: Sir Arthur Stanley. The headquarters moved to London, the British rejoiced. On the eve of World War II, the FICM had 30 affiliate members. In 1936, the first Speedway World Final was held at Wembley Stadium. It was the first official world championship and the first world championship title was won by Australian rider Lionel van Praag. In 1949, the FICM became the “Fédération Internationale Motocycliste” (FIM) and that same year saw the birth of the most prestigious motorcycling competition in the world: the Grand Prix of the World Road Racing Championship. But this, Joseph Harker Bois de Mouzilly Saint-Mars will not see it, he died in Pasadena (USA) on February 25, 1942, he was 66 years old.
Thus, through the gang, La Villaumaire is associated with World Motorcycling. Today, a trophy bears the name of Joseph Harker.
Coming back to Léon BREY and his wife Irène Bois de Mouzilly, it is not known today what prompted them to separate in April and May 1903, both from the castle of La Villaumaire, and from the manor of Contebault which they had acquired in March 1883 in the same commune… That, when they had three children… so as many successors. Still, Leon died barely a year later, on June 16, 1904.
National Archives of France, AJ / 52/357, student file;
Obituary in La Construction moderne, July 30, 1904, p. 528; Of the area; Dugast and Parizet)
Ruth Fiori, examination of the bulletin of the Société des Amis des monuments parisiens for a thesis in art history (University of Paris I, 2009), https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148 /bpt6k6532569k/f167.item
From the twentieth to the twenty-first century
The new owner who inaugurates the entrance of La Villaumaire into the twentieth century is Arthur Nicolas Liébault. It is a centralien of the 1864 promotion, engineer and administrator who will preside over companies which will later become flagships of French industry. This is the case of the CEM (Compagnie Electro-Mécanique), a company which will employ up to 11,000 people, including 1,000 engineers (the turbines of the liner "France" will be produced by the CEM) and which will end up absorbed by ALSTHOM. Or, the Société des Forges et Fonderies de Montataire, which will become USINOR, then SOLLAC, then ARCELOR and finally ARCELOR-MITTAL.
Obviously, as a "high-flying" industrialist, he sat in everything that industry could produce from parastatal institutions; President of the Chambre Syndicale des Mechaniciens de Paris, Member of the Boards of Directors of schools such as the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, up to the awards jury and Vice-President of the admission and installation committees for Universal Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889.
Then, La Villaumaire is the family holiday resort. A home where industrial pacts and other “joint ventures” are concocted during a weekend in the countryside, embellished with hunting parties and sumptuous dinners. Arthur Nicolas Liébault, also left his mark on the Villaumaire by having the two freestone extensions of the "West" facade built. He also had the "Red Cross" tower built, which was part of the estate at the time, and the cedar alleyway which was in front of the "South" entrance to the estate to be planted.
He died in Paris on March 25, 1916. His wife, Cécile Liébault née Tricotel, followed him to the grave, three weeks later, on May 18, 1916. The castle returned to his son, Robert Charles Liébaut who in turn died on March 7, 1919. His widow Marie Dutheil manages to keep the property for another 4 years. But, on November 17, 1923, she had the auction proceeded by the Court of the Seine. The starting price is 725,000 francs (Arthur had acquired it 20 years earlier for the sum of 115,000 francs). The successful tenderer is Charlotte, Cécile Eglé Valentine, Princess of Trémoïlle, widow of Viscount de Larochefoucauld.
Civil Engineering. General review of French and foreign industries, 1916, n ° 175, April 15, 1916, pp. 254
With Charlotte de La Trémoïlle, La Villaumaire returns to the “Grand Siècle”. Charlotte indeed belongs to an illustrious feudal mining house. She is the daughter of Louis-Charles, Duke of La Trémoïlle, Duke of Thouars, Prince of Talmont and Count of Laval, incidentally a historian, member of the Académie des inscriptions & belles-lettres and founder / president of Polo de Paris. His mother is Marguerite-Églé-Jeanne-Caroline Duchâtel, daughter of Count Duchâtel, Minister of Louis-Philippe.
Born on October 19, 1864, she was therefore in her sixties when she embarked, alone, in the purchase in November 1923, then the renovation, of the castle of La Villaumaire. His determination commands admiration (like what, according to the adage, "good blood cannot lie" ). It will, in fact, undertake a considerable campaign of works by completely restructuring, as we will see below, the interior of the castle. However, his life has so far only been a succession of tragedies ...
Forty years earlier, on October 19, 1885, her twenty-first birthday, Charlotte had married in Paris, a 22-year-old young man from one of the best families of the French nobility: Charles (Marie François) de La Rochefoucauld. Nine months later, (August 9, 1886) their only daughter was born: Marguerite (Françoise Marie) de La Rochefoucauld. If the couple will not have the joy of having other children, a few years later, Marguerite will see herself, at least, promised to the best marriage possible. In fact, in 1906 she became engaged to François (Marie Joseph Laurent Victurnien) de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Prince de Tonnay Charente, Marquis de Rochechouart. But the happy days will be short-lived, his father, Charles, ill died on February 25, 1907, at the age of 43. The marriage planned for a long time took place all the same and took place only 4 months after his death, on July 2, 1907. And we predict that it should not have been very cheerful ...
Charles Marie François viscount of La Rochefoucauld, born May 7, 1863 is authorized January 20, 1892 by King Alfonso XIII of Spain to transfer the greatness of Spain attached to the title of Duke of Doudeauville on the Spanish title of Duke of Estrées
But, the black series has only just begun. If the young couple had two beautiful boys : Charles (Marie Louis Arthur Victurnien) born in 1908, titled Prince of Tonnay-Charente and Louis-Victor (Marie François Victurnien), born in 1909, titled Duke de Vivonne, barely 7 years after this marriage, the First World War broke out. François has just turned 33 and is volunteering. He leaves behind his 28-year-old wife and two boys aged 6 and 5. He was assigned as a second lieutenant in the 7th Hunter Regiment. But, is struggling to become a aviator. It must be said, that the nascent aviation is then surrounded by a chivalrous aura. He therefore became a lieutenant pilot in the SPA 23 squadron and, unfortunately, like many others, fell in action on March 16, 1918. His fighter plane, a Spad XIII, crashed at Consenvoye (Meuse) north of Verdun . He was buried on the site of the accident, on the edge of the D964 between Dun-sur-Meuse and Liny-devant-Dun (Meuse); His wife and children set up a moving burial for him (accessible to the public), in the little wood where the deceased breathed his last. The stele still exists today.
Marguerite de la Rochefoucauld, a young widow, will find consolation with a relative of the family: Alain Gabriel de Kergariou, himself widower of Anne de Rochechouart de Mortemart, a cousin of François, who died a few months earlier at the age of 24. Their respective mourning brought them together and she married him the following year (October 1, 1919). Alain de Kergariou at 36, he is deputy of Ille et Villaine, Mayor of La Gouesnière and his family has long owned the Château de Bonaban, where he was also born. But this second marriage is even shorter than the previous one… since 11 months later Alain de Kergariou succumbs to an automobile accident near Fontainebleau (May 29, 1920).
Two years later (August 24, 1922), she married in La Gouesnière, Henri Dufresne 3rd count of Saint-Léon. He is a close friend of her late husband, he has also taken over the Château de Bonaban. He, too (decidedly!), Has been widowed for barely more than a year of Bathilde SUCHET d'ALBUFÉRA, the daughter of the 3rd Duke of ALBUFÉRA ... But this new union is populated by too many ghosts: they divorce on the 5th January 1925.
François de Rochechouart de Mortemart,
Prince of Tonnay Charente,
Marquis de Rochechouart.
So when Charlotte de La Trémoïlle, Viscountess of La Rochefoucault, Duchess of Estrées, buys the castle of La Villaumaire, she has already lost her husband, these two step-sons and as this was not enough, she will lose her daughter ( March 14, 1929) during the construction campaign it has just undertaken.
On May 23, 1929, two months after the death of her daughter, Charlotte made a donation to her second grandson Louis Victor, subject to usufruct during his life, of the estate and the castle of La Villaumaire which she considerably enlarged by the acquisition on February 18, 1924 of the manor of Rassay and on February 10, 1926 of the manor of La Haute Salverte. There again, she will have the pain of burying him: Louis Victor indeed died in 1938.
Then came the Second World War, in June 1940 the French Government in flight withdrew to Touraine, the President of the Council: Paul REYNAUD stayed a few days at the Château de la Villaumaire, his ministers taking over the surrounding castles, before leaving for Bordeaux. Later, like many others, the Castle will be occupied by the Germans.
On June 17, 1941, Charlotte made her will and bequeathed all of these assets to her grandson Charles de Mortemart and to the children of the latter's late brother. Charlotte also died on August 20, 1944 at the age of 79. According to her last wishes, she is buried in the funeral chapel of the princes and dukes of La Trémoïlle in Thouars.
In terms of work, Charlotte does not touch anything on the facades of the castle. Likewise, its intervention on the exteriors remains weak and is limited to a few identical restorations and the installation of the well to its figure. It is on the interiors that she will focus her efforts. So when she takes possession of the building, only the western half of the castle, as we have already said, is habitable. The “east” part is made up of attics, sheds… in short, utility rooms that have remained in “their original condition” and uninhabitable as is. As for the living area, it had been remodeled by the Varannes family into a multitude of small rooms, obscured by the “napkin fold” woodwork, idealized medieval decorations, dear to the 19th century. which had, then, invaded most of the castles of the Loire. Charlotte will endeavor to restore the volumes of the 17th and 18th centuries, and if necessary, to reinvent them. She will also completely renovate the "utility" part by creating master bedrooms and servants' bedrooms. The inventory after death allows, today, to know the allocation of these parts, their colors as the furniture they have. She will also patiently furnish it. Periodically Parisian art dealers come to the castle to offer their finds.
Is it necessary to present the Rochechouart de Mortemart? Younger branch of the ancient Maison de Rochechouart, dating back to the year 980. It is considered to be the oldest surviving French nobility family in France after the Capetians. And it is she who for a decade (because Charlotte's succession will not be definitively closed until February 1949, almost 5 years after her death), will preside over the destiny of La Villaumaire. As we have seen, the castle fell to Charles de Rochechouart de Mortemart, 15th Duke of Mortemart, Prince of Tonnay-Charente, agricultural engineer, as well as to his sister-in-law: Solange d'Harcourt and her children. The family only comes very occasionally to La Villaumaire. It must be said that the Duke has other castles in his bag, in particular the Réveillon castle in Entrains-sur-Nohain (58) at the gates of the Morvan. As for Solange d'Harcourt, the widow of Louis Victor, she has rebuilt her life and is divided between France and South America. La Villaumaire slowly sinks into solitude and quickly becomes a burden without much consideration.
The owners therefore decide to sell. They share the content. And so it is that a large part of the collection of furniture and precious objects amassed by Charlotte de La Tremouïlle will take the road to the Château du Réveillon.
And a good part of this collection will reappear in broad daylight, on February 11, 2015, during the auction organized by Sotheby's, at the request of the 17th Duke of Mortemart.
This goes from the crystal service to the arms of the Rochefoucaulds (sold for € 16,250) through the porcelain figurines that Charlotte appreciated and that she had amassed by the hundreds in the windows of the castle, to the sumptuous cylinder desk, in veneer of sycamore, painted tin plates and gilded bronzes from the Louis XVI period (auctioned for € 351,000), accompanied by its corner chest of drawers, of the same invoice (sold for € 237,000), all attributed to Claude-Charles Saunier, and which adorned , in its day, the green lounge of La Villaumaire.
In 1959, the estate was sold… with the exception of the Red Cross tower which is kept by the family since the widow of Charlotte's driver still resides there. She will stay there, at the family's expense, until her death in 1997 (which shows that with such employers there was no need for social security).
The new buyer is a social fund: the USSR Minières du Nord.
Charles de Rochechouart de Mortemart, he died in an air crash in Morocco, 2 years later in 1961.
The 7 Plagues of Egypt; from 1959 to 1997
For the first time in its history, the owner of the castle was going to be a legal person ... Who is the new buyer? To put it simply, we will say that the Regional Union of Relief Societies of the “Miners of the North”, based in Lens in the Nord Pas de Calais, is a Fund managing the social regime for underground miners. In fact, from the very beginning of the 19th century, Caisses de Secours were set up, faced with the vicissitudes of mining. Private at the outset, they will be progressively nationalized. It was in 1936, in the wake of the Popular Front, with some alterations in 1946, at the end of the Second World War, that the USSR Minières du Nord took the form it would have when it bought, in 1959, La Villaumaire. .
If on a human level, the objective of this acquisition is most laudable = to allow the children of the settlements to enjoy the outdoors in Touraine, moreover, in an exceptional place. On the other hand, in terms of historical heritage, it is a disaster! And it could not be otherwise! Obviously, a legal person, whatever it is, pursues a specific goal, in which the historical, architectural, artistic, even tourist interest…, is only the least of its worries! What the new buyer bought is not a small piece of French history, however modest it may be… they are square meters made “cheap” by the volume acquired! Moreover, the patrimonial vandalism would undoubtedly have been the same, if a bolt factory or a town hall had taken possession of the premises. The notion of immemorial heritage to bequeath to future generations would have been immediately drowned in the icy waters of selfish calculation. Also, the concrete will flow, the barracks will grow in the park like mushrooms in the mildness of the dawning autumn. The castle will take on the appearance of barracks. The lounges are subdivided into rooms ... A castle requires costly and incessant work? Never mind, the USSRMN executes them without complaining ... But by simplifying the building: a fireplace, a pinnacle, a bell tower become unstable: they are purely and simply removed ... A stained-glass window weakens, it is replaced by glass. A faded decor? Here it is ripoliné! An anteroom entirely lined with a 17th century canvas, representing aristocrats of the “Grand Siècle” enjoying themselves in the park of a castle is thus conscientiously coated with 3 coats of glycerophthalic paint, in this “army” gray known to all. the conscripts of the contingent (a sinister bluish gray resulting from the addition of a pure black and white). Everywhere in the woodwork castle, subtle decorations, delicate moldings are torn off in favor of cement slabs, considered safer in terms of fire. At this rate, a few more years, and the castle was summed up in a shed! Thank God, one would dare to say, the conjunction of several factors will put an end to this remodeling of the building… The “glorious thirties” have changed the country: the miner now has a vehicle and a standard of living which allow him, finally, to going on vacation with your children… The “summer camp” is losing its appeal. At the same time, the closure of the wells, with the concomitant reduction in the number of minors (and therefore of contributors), has reduced budgets to a heartbreak. So much so, that at the start of the 1980s, La Villaumaire was nothing more than a load that had to be got rid of. Disused for a few years, the estate was finally sold by candlelight on June 16, 1987. Four years later, the 9/9 bis Oignies pit, the last coal mining pit in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, ceased definitely any exploitation.
The buyer, which will be discussed, is still a legal person ... It is an association of Latvian defectors, entitled "Latvian Institute ABRENE", formed on March 24 for the needs of this acquisition and declared on April 15, 1987 ABRENE was born out of the LAF (The Latvian Association of France registered in Paris on July 10, 1947). The latter was formed at the end of the Second World War to come to the aid of the Latvian diaspora who fled the invasion of their country by the USSR. It must be said that nearly 30% of the country's population had been decimated by the war and that between 1946 and 1953, another 125,000 people had been deported by the Russians. It is therefore understandable that more than 170,000 Latvians have chosen to flee their country. But, with the Perestroika initiated by Gorbachev from April 1985, the hope of a free and independent Latvia stirred the diaspora. Members of the LAF board of directors, associated with representatives of other Latvian associations around the world, therefore decide on the creation of ABRENE. This corporate name is already, in itself, a political program. Abrene is indeed a region of Latvia disputed with the former USSR (and today with Russia). We therefore beat the recall and a thousand Latvians from all over the world, contribute to the purchase of the domain. But the account is not there! The association manages to extract payment from the seller in 3 installments: a third on the day of the auction, the following third: one year later, the last third 2 years later. This debt will weigh heavily on the future of the association. Moreover, if the latter displays a cultural showcase - it organizes, for example, a few concerts and folklore events - the objective remains the promotion of a free, independent and democratic Latvia. Moreover, from May 1989, the Popular Front of Latvia (a political party created to obtain independence for Latvia) and the PBLA (the World Federation of Free Latvians based in Washington) met at the castle. . But the worm is in the fruit! In addition to the systemic impecuniosity of ABRENE, there is the fact that the diaspora is Latvian only on paper ... Most of the members are in fact Americans, Germans, English, Swedish, Canadians, Australians , etc. who are Latvian only to be the son or daughter (see grandson or granddaughters) of defectors. In this cultural “melting pot” dissension will quickly become endemic. All this will be purged in interminable legal proceedings, to such an extent that in July 1992, the Court of Tours will be forced to appoint a provisional administrator. In addition, the proclamation in May 1990 of the independence of Latvia, followed in 1991 by its effective entry into force following the collapse of the USSR, will deprive ABRENE of its raison d'être. … Consequently, many members, little to the fact of the French associative law (it is the least that one can say) and which, because of this fact, estimate to have invested in timeshare, require the restitution of their “contributions”. Finally on December 9, 1994, in a general assembly the members decide to sell…. Which will occur, after many other tribulations, in January 1997.
Over the 10 years of Latvian “occupation”, in addition to leaving the square, a liability of more than two million francs (a sum at the time), will count among the darkest years of the monument. The maintenance is, for lack of means, non-existent ... we pay the rare suppliers in wood cuts looted in the park, which is abandoned in the fallow ... then quickly the building is left to itself ... open to all winds, it is the prey of all that a monument in escheat can attract as predators: this ranges from the poacher who tears shutters to form a lookout in the trees, to the unscrupulous urban worker who takes away a souvenir of the castle, to the looter of great road which comes as a team and leaves again by truck… Thus, 11 chimneys, doors, windows, stained glass… until the pinnacles and bell-towers were torn from the castle and carried away. The carelessness of the owner is such that he pushes vandalism to the point of renaming La Villaumaire from its centuries-old name to give it the heterogeneous name of "Château Abrène".
Thus, in less than 40 years, the Château de La Villaumaire, which had survived nearly a millennium of troubled history, has been reduced to the rank of historic wreck.
La Villaumaire could not have come at a better time by abandoning itself in the hands of this new buyer! And it is under the best auspices that it is entering a new century. Indeed, the new owner: Bruno Comte Vitali, 5th prince of Sant'Eusebio, comes from a family of builders who already have to his credit the rescue of many monuments. But who is the newcomer?
He belongs to an ancient family of the Venetian nobility established in the lagoon in the year 800 and whose - thanks to the "Libro d'Oro" - we can follow the filiation up to Ugo Vitali (Olim. Vidali) living in the XI °. s. This gave the Serene Republic of Venice procurators of Saint Mark, ambassadors, magistrates at the Supreme Court of Quarantia, etc.).
In 1572, the Government of the Serene Republic of Venice, wishing to reward Lorenzo Vitali who had distinguished himself in the war against the Turks - granted him fiefs and titles in the then Venetian island of Zante. This transfer to the Ionian Islands (this family was listed in the Golden Book of the nobility of Zante in 1574) was not without consequences on the events that followed. Thus, during the collapse of the Republic of Venice in 1797, the Vitali got involved in the Greek War of Independence. In 1803, Ser Giovanni Vitali (noble of Zante), was one of the first four Senators representing the island of Zante in the constituent assembly of the aristocratic Republic of the "Seven Islands". He had married Elena Condostavlo (family listed in the Golden Book of the nobility of Zante in 1578) from whom he had two sons: Giorgio, born in Zante (1777), died in Paris (1854) and Spiro who would become the main actors of the "French party" aiming to establish on the throne of Greece, the Duke of Nemours, son of the Duke of Orleans, himself future King of the French (Louis-Philippe Ier). The advent, in 1832, of a prince of the House of Bavaria (Othon Ier) on the throne of Greece, put an end to their political action.
Having become close to the French Monarch, Giorgio will then settle in France where he will make his mark. From then on, his descendants will not cease to save palaces, castles or churches, such in particular: the Vidoni Caffarelli Palace in Rome, the Hôtel de Gunzburg (called Hôtel Vitali) in Paris, the Château de Vigny, in the Vexin French, the Château de Ham-sur-Heure, in Belgium, the Villa Fiorentina in Cannes, the Villa Léopolda, in Villefranche sur Mer, the Villa Fiorentina in Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, the Château de Saint Julien l'Ars, the Château de Cour-sur-Loire in the Loir et Cher, the Château de Hémevez in the Manche, the Château de Frémainville in the Val d'Oise… Not to mention the churches that have been restored or completely rebuilt from head to toe: in Vigny, Frémainville , Saint Julien l'Ars, Canne, Versailles ...
The prince and princess of Sant'Eusebio nowadays.
The Prince and Princess have passed on their passion for heritage to their three children, so much so that the patient and meticulous restoration undertaken for a quarter of a century is certain to continue. And we can count on the Venetian soul to offer the Villaumaire a dazzling rebirth.
Dizionario Storico-Portatile Di Tutte Le Venete Patrizie Famiglie [archive], G.Bettinelli, Venezia, 1780, page 158. [archive]
Blasones de Italia, Armas de los cavalleros de Veneçia, 1601, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MSS/18257, page 106 [archive]
Famiglie venete con le loro armi, XVII° s, Biblioteca estense universitaria di Modena, page 159.
Famiglie venete con le loro armi, XVII° s, Biblioteca estense universitaria di Modena, IT 554, page 12b.
Repertorio Genealogico delle Famiglie confermate nobili e dei titolati nobili esistenti nelle provincie Venete, Francesco Schröder, Venise, 1830, typografia Alvisopoli.
Elenco dei Nobili e titolati delle Venete Provincie, Venezia, 1841.
Annuario della Nobiltà Italiana, XXXI Edition, Vol. II, part. II, pages 2476 et 2477, SAGI
Enciclopedia Storico Nobiliare Italiana, Vittorio Spreti, volume VI, S-Z, 1932. page 948
Elenco ufficiale nobiliare italiano, Consulta araldica del Regno, Torino, Bocca 1922
Livre d'Or de la Noblesse Ionienne, Tome III : Zante, par le prince Eugène Rizo Rangabé, Eleftheroudakis, Athènes 1927
Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Italiana, volume XXX, T2 (M-Z) - Page 874